Bas-Relief is a form of sculpture in which raised and modeled parts project from a flat background. Generally, relief figures and backgrounds are sculpted from the same material. Relief sculpture has a notable history dating back over 20,000 years in both eastern and western cultures.
Bas-relief sculpture can be traced to the beginning of artistic representation. Even the prehistoric cave paintings at Altamira, Spain, were applied to raised areas on the cave walls. The use of reliefs remained a strong tradition in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria and Persia.
Persian low relief from Qajar
The ancient Greeks were the first to realize the full potential of relief decoration in architecture. The reliefs from the metopes of the Greek temple at Selinunte in Sicily, from the temple of Zeus at Olympia, and above all, those from the Parthenon at Athens, are among the highest expressions of classical art.
The Parthenon Frieze
In Roman art, reliefs were used to decorate triumphal arches and columns throughout the empire. Sarcophagi, too, were heavily decorated, usually in very high relief.
Early Christian art continued many of the traditions and conventions of Roman art, including the use of relief decoration. Romanesque relief sculpture was often very flat, stylized and expressive, with the suggestion of strong movement.
Artists continued to develop the form throughout the late Renaissance through the nineteenth century in Europe and America, especially on civic buildings. During this period, reliefs became popular as an independent art form, especially for outdoor commemorative sculptures.
Artists today often explore the interplay of light and shadow in their white bas-reliefs, using the raised surfaces to create dynamic textures. Some employ a minimalist approach, focusing on the purity of form and the contrast between the relief and the background. Others experiment with more intricate designs, incorporating various textures and layers to add depth and complexity to their compositions.
This sculptural technique continues to captivate audiences with its intricate details, skillful craftsmanship, and timeless beauty.